The numbers of nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are increasing throughout the entire health care enterprise, and a similar expansion continues within radiology. The use of radiologist assistants is growing in some radiology practices as well. The increased volume of services rendered by this growing nonphysician provider subset of the health care workforce within and outside radiology departments warrants closer review, particularly with regard to their potential influence on radiology education and medical imaging resource utilization. In this article (the second in a two-part series), the authors review recent literature and offer recommendations for radiology practices regarding the impact NPs, PAs, and radiologist assistants may have on interventional and diagnostic radiology practices. Their potential impact on medical education is also discussed. Finally, staffing for radiology departments, as a result of an enlarging nonradiology NP and PA workforce ordering diagnostic imaging, is considered.

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